The Islamic Republic of Iran comprises a large central desert surrounded by mountains, and is rich in oil and natural gas. It is the home of Shia Islam, which is followed by at least 90% of the population, and is a theocracy in which the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, is more powerful than the elected president.
Iran had cordial relations with the West under the Pahlavi monarchy, but in 1979 the Shah was deposed by a popular Islamic revolution headed by Ayatollah Khomeini, who declared Iran the world’s first Islamic republic. The revolution was the result of religious, political and popular dissatisfaction with the Shah’s programme of modernisation and Westernisation and his repression of dissent.
The year after the revolution, Iraq (under President Saddam Hussein) invaded Iran. The Iran-Iraq war lasted until 1988, when Iran accepted a ceasefire agreement with Iraq following UN negotiations.
Since the revolution, Iran has swung between more rigid and relatively liberal interpretations of Islamic rule. In 2005, the ultra-conservative Mahmoud Ahmadinejad became president and there followed a clampdown on “unIslamic behaviour”. President Ahmadinejad won a second term in 2009 amid claims of fraud and vote-rigging, and the bitterly disputed result led to the most serious unrest since the revolution, with at least thirty people killed and more than 1,000 arrested at the protests that followed.
In June 2013, the self-proclaimed moderate Hassan Rouhani was elected president. One of his campaign promises was to improve the conditions of ethnic and religious minorities, but there has been no improvement for Christians.
There is widespread social breakdown in Iran and disillusionment with the regime. There are many drug addicts, street children and prostitutes, and rates of depression are high, especially in the capital, Tehran. Rapid population growth followed by rapid urbanisation has led to millions of young, jobless people in cities. The Iranian government has been widely condemned for its many human rights abuses.
Internationally, there have been tensions between Iran and the UN, the EU and the US over its uranium enrichment programme. Iran said its nuclear programme was peaceful but the West feared it was directed towards developing nuclear weapons and imposed sanctions. In July 2015, an accord was reached between Iran and world powers (the US, Russia, China, Britain, France, Germany and the EU), which imposed curbs on the nuclear programme in return for easing of sanctions.
Christians in Iran
Religious freedom is guaranteed in the constitution and Iranian Christians who worship in the historic churches (ethnic Armenian and Assyrian) enjoy relative freedom, although they are observed by the security organisations. The historic churches are not allowed to accept converts and must conduct their services in the Armenian and Assyrian languages, not Farsi (Persian, the official language of Iran, which is spoken by the general populace).
The government is increasingly concerned by the enormous growth of the “underground” house church movement, viewing house churches as a major threat because they use Farsi and are composed almost entirely of converts from Islam. The distribution of over 1.5 million Farsi New Testaments has led to government warnings about the influence of the “red book”. The regime portrays evangelical Christians as part of a foreign conspiracy against Iran, and Christian converts are often charged with “threatening national security” and “actions against the regime“.
It is estimated that in 1979 there were only about 500 Iranian Christian converts, but mission groups believe that there are now over 700,000, although it is impossible to estimate accurately because of the need to meet in secret. Security police are constantly trying to find and close house churches and leaders are often arrested and tortured in an effort to track down all members. At least 115 Christians were arrested in 2020, according to Christian Solidarity Worldwide and Article 18.
In prison, Christians suffer sleep deprivation, unsanitary conditions, illness, denial of medical treatment and sometimes prolonged beating. They also face many hours of interrogation, including torture, threats of execution and harm to family members, and pressure to recant their faith.
When Christians are released from prison it is often on payment of exorbitant bail, ranging from the equivalent of a few thousand euro to the deeds of a house, and they face further arrest or prosecution if they continue to meet with other Christians. Typically, they are told that they should have no visitors to their home and host no church meetings and they are often forced to sign that they renounce their faith and will not participate in Christian activities. Thereafter, they are closely monitored. Often police contact their employers and instruct them to sack the “apostate”.
Bahá’is are also severely persecuted in Iran, routinely suffering discrimination in education and employment, and many have been imprisoned.
(Article 18, BBC, Compass Direct News, Christian Solidarity Worldwide, Elam, FCNN, Middle East Concern, Mohabat News, Open Doors, Operation World, Reuters, World Watch Monitor)
Church in Chains in Action
Church in Chains has spoken up on behalf of Christians in Iran for many years. In October 2018, Church in Chains wrote to the Iranian Embassy in Dublin appealing for better treatment for Christian prisoner Ebrahim Firouzi.
Church in Chains has sent aid through partner organisations Elam Ministries and Middle East Concern to support families of persecuted Christians and to provide literature and other resources to Christians in Iran, including thousands of Farsi New Testaments. €21,128 was sent in 2020, €24,230 in 2019 and over €88,000 in the years 2013-2018.
On 19 March 2015, a Church in Chains delegation visited the Iranian Embassy in Dublin, where Joanna Tuffy TD presented a petition highlighting the persecution of Christians in Iran to the Ambassador, Mr Javad Kachouiean. The petition, signed by twenty members of the Oireachtas, appealed for the release of three Christian leaders (Saeed Abedini, Farshid Fathi and Behnam Irani) and Mohammed Ali Dadkhah, a human rights lawyer who represented Christians. The four men were released on different dates in 2015 and 2016.
Church in Chains campaigned extensively for Youcef Nadarkhani (pictured), a Christian sentenced to death in 2010. He was released in September 2012, but was returned to prison in July 2018 to begin serving a ten-year sentence.
In the early 1990s, the murder of a number of pastors led to Church in Chains holding a public memorial service outside the Iranian Embassy in Dublin.
Christian convert Naser Navard Gol-Tapeh, who is serving a ten-year prison sentence on national security charges, has written a poem on the occasion of Nowruz, the Persian New Year
Christian convert Homayoun Zhaveh, who has advanced Parkinson’s disease, and his wife Sara Ahmadi have been told to expect a summons to begin serving their prison sentences for belonging to a house church.
The UN’s Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has ruled that the Iranian government is guilty of arbitrarily detaining Pastor Youcef Nadarkhani and has called for his immediate release
Christian convert Ebrahim Firouzi has ended his hunger strike after receiving assurances that he will soon be released and the case against him dismissed.
Ebrahim was arrested after releasing a series of six videos detailing harassment by Iranian intelligence services (MOIS).